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Denotes a range of 0 to 5 volts, which is common for gates, triggers, and modulation control voltages in modular synthesizers. Gates and triggers – which initiate events such as new notes – typically rise from 0v to 5v (0 to 10v is also common), with roughly the middle of that onset starting the event. Gates are considered high when held at 5v (or 10v), and then low when they return to 0v.

Although many modulation sources range between 0 and 5 volts, this range is not exclusive. Envelopes commonly have a range of 0 to 8 or even 10 volts; low frequency oscillators can often be set to go between +/–2.5 volts to +/–5 volts or more. And of course, any of these may be varied to change the depth of their effect. So don’t get too hung up on specific voltage ranges; pay more attention to whether they vary between 0v and some value, or swing in roughly equal amounts both above and below 0v.

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